Shale Oil: Definition, Production, Fracking, Pros, Cons

 · Shale oil extraction methods are more flexible than traditional oil well drilling. The initial drilling only accounts for 40% of the total cost. Extracting the oil costs roughly $1 million for each well. That made shale oil extraction profitable when oil reached $100 a barrel.

Help and support | Lubricants

We recommend that you check the oil level in the morning when the engine is cold and most of the oil has run down into the engine’s oil pan. The oil pan forms the bottom of your engine and is the reservoir for the engine oil. You will need a clean cloth or paper towels , a can of oil and a funnel. We also recommend wearing disposable gloves.

Why an Oil's Viscosity Drops

For instance, if you are using an ISO 220 viscosity gear oil but a lower viscosity gear oil (such as ISO 68) of the same brand is added in, this can lead to a sudden drop in the viscosity reading when the oil is sampled. A decrease in viscosity may also occur when non-lubricants like solvents and diesel fuel accidently get into the lubricant ...

Principles of rolling bearing selection | SKF | SKF

bearing selection examples, which show the bearing selection process applied to various machines and application cases Contact the SKF application engineering service through your local SKF representative if you have any questions, or require any assistance, when using the bearing selection process guidelines or information here and in the ...


 · today you can mail order almost anything + a bit of searching will get better deals IMO. girlfriends 13 malibu 2.5 DI engine is a bit oil thirsty at almost 60 thou, so i tried the 5-40 liqui-moly on amazon + its drinking less. told her to get another VW as her 08 jetta 2.5 was using very little oil + got better mpg's locally where she drives ...

The future of oil supply

 · If smaller, younger and offshore fields account for an increasing share of future global production, the average decline rate for conventional oil fields will increase prior to the peak . 12 Greater reliance upon tight oil resources produced using hydraulic fracturing will exacerbate any rising trend in global average decline rates, since these ...

Rules of thumb for petroleum engineers James

as hydraulic fracturing and enhanced oil recovery. The book covers every aspect of crude oil, natural gas, viscosity 311 density 289 fluid 284 processes 280 fuel 277 gravity 256 recovery 248 boiling 242 properties 227 gases 221 hydrogen sulfide 215


Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH 3 CH 2) 4 Pb.. TEL is a petro-fuel additive, first being mixed with gasoline (petrol) beginning in the 1920s as a patented octane rating booster that allowed engine compression to be raised substantially. This in turn caused increased vehicle performance and fuel economy.

Pavement materials: Bitumen

The viscosity expressed in seconds is the time taken by the 50 ml bitumen material to pass through the orifice of a cup, under standard test conditions and specified temperature. Viscosity of a cutback can be measured with either 4.0 mm orifice at 25 C or 10 mm orifice at 25 or 40 C.

5 Reasons Why Coal Is Being Killed Off |

“Coal is good for humanity, coal is good for prosperity, coal is an essential part of our economic future, here in Australia, and right around the world,” said the former PM, opening the $3.9 ...

SKF provides tips on troubleshooting bearing temperatures

The lubricant originally specified for the application was likely selected to run at lower temperatures. A temperature increase of 50°F (28°C) may cause oil viscosity to drop by 50% or more. This could be the "tipping point" for the application, causing it to go from a hot (but stable) condition, to a hotter, unstable condition where thermal ...


Welcome to the 2017 Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit and Exhibition. Following the previous rich tradition, the summit will cover 3 sustainability pillars: (1) Science, Technology and Industrial Practice, (2) Political and Social Framework and (3) Eduion.

2016624&ensp·&enspWeak and viscosity solutions 5. Spectral fractional Laplacian problems Part II. Nonlocal Subcritical Problems: 6. Mountain Pass and linking results 7. Existence and localization of solutions 8. Resonant fractional equations 9. A pseudoindex approach to


A viscometer (also called viscosimeter) is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a fluid.For liquids with viscosities which vary with flow conditions, an instrument called a rheometer is used. Thus, a rheometer can be considered as a special type of viscometer. Viscometers only …

Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources

2020424&ensp·&enspFor economic reasons, lignite and brown coal are rarely mined underground. An underground coal mine consists essentially of three components: a production area coal transport to the foot of a shaft or decline and either hoisting or conveying the coal to the surface.

A comprehensive deposition velocity model for slurry ...

Transportation of solids in form of slurries has become one of the most important unit operations in industries across several disciplines. In fact, the need is more pronounced in industries that are very important for human survival such as food processing, pharmaceuticals and energy (coal, oil and gas). A lot of work has been done in the past 30 years in understanding the factors affecting ...

Unit 2 Nature’s Chemistry

Give three ways in which the formation of coal and oil are similar. 3. We describe fossil fuels as being ‘finite resources’. ... Use the information in the table to suggest one reason why North Sea crude oil might ... He timed how long it took for a marble to fall through 100cm3 of each oil fraction. His results are shown in the table.


201867&ensp·&enspOn the PdLa/MgAl2O4 alyst, under the LHSV 0.3 h(1), the highest conversion of 2,6DIPP was 98.5%, the highest selectivity and the highest yield of 2,6DIPA was 88.9% and 87.5%, respectively. The whole run time of PdLa/MgAl2O4 alyst was up to

The Oil Drum | Tech Talk

 · The original Prudhoe is a small village with a medieval castle on the south bank of the Tyne, in the northeast of England. It lies in a coal-mining region within five miles of Prudhoe Colliery, where there were, over time, an additional 157 mines and pits and five working seams of coal in the 1860s. Not in itself out of the ordinary, but by 1828 Prudhoe had given its name to a region in Alaska.

Welcome In Fall With These Cozy Harvest

Plaid is the unofficial pattern of fall, and 100 percent necessary for your lounge area. Throw a few of these soft cotton pillows on your sofa for an instant seasonal upgrade in …

Gardco :: Viscosity Cups FAQ's

There are good technical reasons for the stated range of 20 to 60 seconds. A material approaching zero viscosity will have an efflux time from the #2 cup of 16.3 seconds. Viscosity of a material has very little influence on cup drain time when near this minimum. Please note the following centistoke - drain time seconds relationship:


Oil pressures seem to be between 45-55 psi. Most of the people I know seem to be using Aero Shell Sport Plus 4 oil (10-40W). What I have found with many of the high oil temps around 240F-250F on climb is a reduced radius in one of the 13mm (1/2") oil hoses. Many have been the hose that comes off the oil cooler and goes into the oil pump housing.

Upgrading and mining of coal Shell Oil Company

20051129&ensp·&enspFor example, mining coal from steeply dipping coal seams, from relatively thin coal seams (e.g., less than about 1 meter thick), and/or from deep coal seams may not be economically feasible. Deep coal seams include coal seams that are at, or extend to, depths of greater than about 3000 feet (about 914 m) below surface level. • Engine Oil weight : Vortec 5300 5.3L V8

 · This can cause sludge build-up in your engine if using inferior oil and is the main reason GM and other OEM's do not recommend 40 wt oils in gasoline engines. Benefit of using a 5W-30 / 0W-30 over a 0W-40, 10W-40 or 15W-40 is reduced internal engine friction and windage (the drag produced by parts moving through the oil bath) which helps fuel ...

Oil and Lubrication Systems Guide for Big

Oil pump primers fit into the distributor hole and engage the pump drive. Drive the shaft with your 3/8- or 1/2-inch-drill motor until you have full pressure for 20 or 30 seconds, then rotate the crank to a different position and repeat. Oil pump primers are available from many sources, and this one is from GMPP (PN 12368084). (Photo Courtesy GMPP)

How Long Should Heating Oil Last, and How Much Will I Use?

For example, if trace elements of metal and rust get into the oil, it will corrupt the viscosity and make it more difficult for the oil to work its way through the heating system. If the problem is allowed to fester, the bad oil can hamper system efficiency and force moving metal parts to grind against one another, causing corrosion in the process.

8:__Sean's Technology Blog

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The True Reason Why America's Enemies Still Fear the B

 · The True Reason Why F-22s, F-35s and B-2 Bombers are Unstoppable - Duration: 10:04. US Military News 230,077 views. 10:04.

Potential Appliion of Oil Palm Wastes Charcoal

This study is aimed at investigating the potentials of oil palm wastes as an alternative to fossil fuels (coal) for domestic heat generation via briquettes (solid fuels) production. In this study oil palm wastes such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), mesocarp fiber (MF) and palm kernel shell (PKS) were pyrolyzed at temperatures of 400°C for 120 min and a heating rate of 10°C min−1. The biochar

NFPA 30 rules for fuel oil piping

 · I am working on a design standard for my client for fuel oil piping (for diesel generators). This pertains to light fuel oil (#1 or #2 diesel). NFPA 30 states that piping shall comply with ASME B31 and that low melting point allows (such as bronze, aluminum, nickel, etc) may be used underground or where they do pose "undue risk".

Quora A place to share knowledge and better understand

Quora is a place to gain and share knowledge. It's a platform to ask questions and connect with people who contribute unique insights and quality answers. This empowers people to learn from each other and to better understand the world.

In situ thermal processing of a hydrocarbon containing

200461&ensp·&enspA hydrocarbon containing formation may be treated using an in situ thermal process. Hydrocarbons, H 2, and/or other formation fluids may be produced from the formation.Heat may be applied to the formation from heat sources to raise a temperature of a portion of the formation to a desired temperature.

Oil Specifications Explained

The 40 in a 10w-40 simply means that the oil must fall within certain viscosity limits at 100°C. This is a fixed limit and all oils that end in 40 must achieve these limits. Once again the lower the number, the thinner the oil: a 30 oil is thinner than a 40 oil at 100°C etc.

Minimum flow

 · Ron Astall, United Pumps Australia Ask ten different pump engineers for their guidelines on establishing centrifugal pump minimum flow and you might get ten different answers. Even agreeing on a basic definition for minimum flow can be problematic. A definition that at first glance seems more than reasonable is as follows: The lowest pump flow that can be maintained continuously […]

Converting Coal to Oil

 · Coal is back and it's getting a new look- but not in the way you might think.

Tooling: Lube it or lose it

Most metal forming operations use lubricants to protect the tooling and part from excessive wear caused by scuffing, scratching, scoring, welding, and galling. Four lubricant families are commonly used in pressworking, and thousands of formulations are available within each chemical family. The physical characteristics of the lubricant and metal forming operation involved determine the ...

Engine Oil Weight and Viscosity | Mineral Vs Synthetic

There are two types of oil that exist today. 1. Mineral Oil - This is oil that is natural oil found in the ground that is refined to become the oil that we put in our engines and make gasoline from. 2. Synthetic - This is oil that has been manufactured for use in a lab. Next is to understand the weights and viscosity …

Heavy oil

Heavy oil is defined as liquid petroleum of less than 20°API gravity or more than 200 cp viscosity at reservoir conditions. No explicit differentiation is made between heavy oil and oil sands (tar sands), although the criteria of less than 12°API gravity and greater than 10,000 cp are sometimes used to define oil …

EP0712921A1 Continuous method for increasing the

EP0712921A1 EP95308207A EP95308207A EP0712921A1 EP 0712921 A1 EP0712921 A1 EP 0712921A1 EP 95308207 A EP95308207 A EP 95308207A EP 95308207 A EP95308207 A EP 95308207A EP 0712921 A1 EP0712921 A1 EP 0712921A1 Authority EP European Patent Office Prior art keywords tar feed circulation loop permeate flow Prior art date 19941117 Legal status (The legal

Mining industry and sustainable development: time for change

In 1980 in the United Kingdom, coal was replaced by the cheaper and abundant natural gas and oil and this was the end of an era. Today, coal still accounts for the production of near to 25% of the world's energy, but is declining fast, and by 2050, coal will contribute to about one‐third only (IEA, 2017). There are an estimated 892 billion ...

How To Calculate Hydraulic Pump and Motor Efficiency ...

As hydraulic oil viscosity increases, the engine works harder (burns more fuel), so the cooling fan (controlled by engine temperature) runs harder. This means more heat is dissipated from the hydraulic oil and, therefore, hydraulic oil viscosity increases further. It’s a viscous circle.

Best Diesel engine oil | Green Tractor Talk

 · The choice to run mineral or synth oil is yours. The real differences in brands is the additive package as they are all proprietary. Now, as far as the new CJ-4 DEF oils, although they do meet the requirements of some non-DEF engines, you are better off running oils formulated for non-DEF engines in non-DEF engines as the additive package is ...

Read "Review of the 21st Century Truck Partnership: Third

Heavyduty truck engines, emissions control technology, and fuels are central to all aspects of the 21st Century Truck Partnership's (21CTP's) vision of improved thermal efficiency, reduced oil dependency, lowexhaust emissions, lower cost, and improved safety. Although diesel engines used in new trucks are among the most efficient and

When Hydraulic Motor Case

The hydraulic oil’s viscosity, viscosity index, or the optimum viscosity number for the hydraulic components in the system apparently were not considered during the test. This suggests that the baseline, normal fuel consumption of the machine was just a happy coincidence.

Oil Well Production

The oil reservoirs are Dongying formation sandstones. The reservoir depth is 1450–1700 m. The relative density of crude oil is 0.95–0.96, and the in situ oil viscosity is 70 mPa·s. The length of the oil-bearing section is up to 100–200 m with a low flowing capability of oil wells.

The Basics of Used Oil Sampling

Under the guidance of Jim Smith of Allied Services Group, a milling plant in the southern United States started an oil analysis program in the fall of 2003. With a predominance of conveyors and other milling equipment, a significant number of the plant’s critical …

The Oil Drum: Europe The Universal Mining Machine

2018625&ensp·&enspAt present, crude oil is approaching its worldwide production peak ("peak oil") and is expected to start an irreversible productive decline in the coming years (see e.g. ). The other two main fossil fuels, natural gas and coal, are expected to peak at a later time, but in the coming decades anyway.

Steam Turbine Oils: What You Should Know | Power Engineering

Viscosity – Viscosity is the primary requirement for selecting a steam turbine oil. Using a product that has the correct viscosity will provide the necessary film thickness to reduce friction ...

Cause of pump overloading EnggCyclopedia

Stainless steel parts will gall as soon as rubbing contact is made that results in motor overload. Dismantle the pump and check shaft run out if it's fond that readings are out of range send the shaft for balancing if the problem remains replace the shaft with a new one.

The History of Engine Oil

The Viscosity Index number for engine oil is not normally quoted on oil cans, for obvious reasons on certain oils, but is available from all genuine performance oil producers. Advances in the 1950s and 60s in the petro-chemical industry also led to comprehensive synthetic detergent packages for oil, and very efficient anti-wear and anti-scuff ...


Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.It is widely used as a fuel in aviation as well as households. Its name derives from Greek: κηρός (keros) meaning "wax", and was registered as a trademark by Canadian geologist and inventor Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a ...

Coal oil was useful all

The doctor finally gave up and told her to go home and soak the wound in coal oil twice a day and pray for healing. The remedy worked. As I suspected, a detailed search of the book did not show coal oil as a recommended remedy for any malady. I now believe use of the concoction was for purely psychological reasons.

PEH:Cold Heavy

For these reasons, CHOPS in zones in which the oil viscosity is greater than 15,000 cp is not recommended. A key factor is sufficient gas in solution to generate foamy oil behavior. Gas bubblepoint should be at least 60 to 70% of p o , and the closer p o is to hydrostatic (10 kPa/m), the better.

How to Start a Cold Lawn Mower | Hunker

 · Whether it is early in the mowing season or late into the fall, you will have to start a cold lawn mower engine, which can be very difficult at times. It is harder to start a cold lawn mower because the engine oil has less viscosity and the carburetor may have stale gas in it.

Best oil for 6.7 Cummins | Dodge Cummins Diesel Forum

 · I have used nothing but Rotella in all my Ram/Cummins trucks. I also use Rotella in all my diesel powered welding machines. Shell makes a superior product. Ran good old Rotella 15/40 Dino oil in 5.9 but in both of my 6.7 trucks I use Rotella 5/40 full synthetic. Due to the long oil change intervals and the diversity of climates I travel to...

Biodiesel: Algae as a Renewable Source for Liquid Fuel

Coal, both non-renewable and environmentally destructive, is the most ... The world’s oil production is expected to decline in between one and ten decades (Crookes, 2006). As a result of this impending energy crisis, both governments and private industry are ... seed causes the oil, and resulting biodiesel, to become increasingly expensive.

Publiions World Academy of Science, Engineering and

The highest value of seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 2523.7 kg ha1, 51.18% and 1292.2 kg ha1) were obtained from the first sowing date (May 10) while the lowest seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 1550 kg ha1, 43.67%, 677.3

Geology 310: FINAL Flashcards Quizlet

• oil shale contains kerogen, which is a precursor to oil and has to be heated to high temperatures in order to turn into oil • Kerogen is extracted from oil shale by 2 methods: 1 surface mines (or open pit mines) and 2 insitu methods similar to those used at Alberta oil sands


1. Oil flows in a pipe 80 mm bore di ameter with a m ean ve locity of 0.4 m /s. Th e density is 890 kg/m 3 and the viscosity is 0.075 Ns/m 2. Show that the f low is lam inar and hence deduce the pressure loss per m etre length. 379.7 0.075 890 x 0.4 x 0.08 µ!ud R e Since th is is less th an 20 00 f low is lam inar so Poiseuille s equ ation app ...

Coal oil

Coal oil is a shale oil obtained from the destructive distillation of cannel coal, mineral wax, or bituminous shale, once used widely for illumination.. Chemically similar to the more refined, petroleum-derived kerosene, it consists mainly of several hydrocarbons of the alkane series, with 10 to 16 carbon atoms in each molecule, with a boiling point of 175°C to 325°C, higher than gasoline or ...

IEA Facts and Fictions Climate Etc.

Chief Think logistics. Yes Hitler showed that coal could be converted to fuel, but not enough and not fast enough. Robert L. Hirsch shows that it takes about 20 years of war time footing effort BEFORE the peak, to bring other resources on line to replace oil without resulting in a major decline. Hirsch 2005 PEAKING OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION: IMPACTS, MITIGATION, & RISK MANAGEMENT

Best engine oil to use

 · Amsoil 10-40 100% syn is my choice as well.Its all I run in my KX250f year round.I live in California and the outside temps range from 105 in the summer to 50's in the winter.I use 10-40 year round.Change my oil and clean my filter (stainless) every 7hrs.

Why You Don’t See Steam Locomotives Anymore | The Saturday ...

 · According to the designers, diesel engines could run faster and work longer than steam locomotives. They were more fuel-efficient; they didn’t require frequent stops to replenish coal and water. Instead of generating steam in an enormous boiler, the diesel burned oil to power a generator that, in turn, powered electric motors on the wheels.

Ignition of Hydraulic Fluid Sprays by Open Flames and Hot ...

where ignition sources are present. When hydraulic oil is released under pressure, it often results in an atomized spray or mist of oil droplets that may extend as far as 10 m from the break (Bowen & Shirvill, 1994). The oil spray can be ignited readily by hot surfaces, such as heated or molten metal, electric heaters, open flames or welding arcs.

Oil well

The earliest known oil wells were drilled in China in 347 CE. These wells had depths of up to about 240 metres (790 ft) and were drilled using bits attached to bamboo poles. The oil was burned to evaporate brine and produce salt.By the 10th century, extensive bamboo pipelines connected oil wells with salt springs. The ancient records of China and Japan are said to contain many allusions to the ...

157,000 Shipping Containers of U.S. Plastic Waste Exported ...

 · The primary reason for the decline is China’s strict scrap import policies which have reduced imports of plastic waste from the U.S. with a reduction of 96% since its peak in 2012. The decline is positive news for the ocean, rivers, ecosystems and the people of the receiving countries and world: less plastic waste was sent to places that do ...

Upgrading of flash pyrolysis tars to synthetic crude oil

However, results from Run 7 indied that, in certain respects, alyst activity had begun to decline, being particularly apparent by the decrease in nitrogen removal efficiency (62% compared with 73% from the data shown in Figure 4}, and the increase in phenolic OH content of the product oil (0.45 compared with 0.13% predicted by Figure 5).

Front Differential Oil Question | The Diesel Stop

 · "W" designates winter, indicating the oil's viscosity grade when tested at "W"inter temperatures. SAE 90 indicates the viscosity of the oil as measured at a reference temperature of 212 °F, and classified as a 90 grade oil. [ QUOTE ] By Grampy_Jim: Updated spec on rear diff lube calls for 75W140 in all Ford rear diffs (Dana still gets 80W90).

Uses of hydrocarbon gas liquids

Hydrocarbon gas liquids have many uses. Hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL) are versatile products used in every end-use sector—residential, commercial, industrial (manufacturing and agriculture), transportation, and electric power. The chemical compositions of HGL purity products (HGL streams with a minimum of 90% of one type of HGL) are similar, but their uses vary. • Oil weight : EcoTec3 5.3L V8

 · It will often have you go way too long. 7500 miles is the most I'd ever run the oil. I do mine 2 times a year. Once in spring and again in fall. Ends up being around 5000 miles. But there are tons, and I mean TONS of thread on here regarding oil. They usually turn into a argument as to which oil brand is best and other nonsense like that.

geology 3 exam Flashcards | Quizlet

The primary reasons that no more than 30% of the oil contained within most reservoirs is recovered are the viscosity of the oil and "patchy" (irregular) or low permeability. Which pair of techniques listed below would probably best increase the percentage of oil recoverable from a reservoir?

Damage to Gears | KHK Gears

Damage to gears is basically categorized by two types; one is the damage to the tooth surface, and the other is breakage of the gear tooth. In addition, there are other specific damages, such as the deterioration of plastic material, the rim or web breakages.

Don't Expect Oil To Follow Coal's Decline

 · The coal industry is in serious decline in the U.S. Those expecting the oil industry to follow a similar decline may be in for a surprise.

pre:solutions to getting a crusher more operational in an open pit minenext:right track crusher